How the CRC is implemented?

The CRC requires States Parties to report periodically to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. The Committee is made up of 18 experts in the field of children’s rights, who are elected by governments that have become States Parties and empowered to act in their individual capacities without being subject to governmental oversight or influence. The Committee holds three sessions per year in Geneva, Switzerland to evaluate reports from States Parties and make further recommendations when needed. Each State Party must be present to answer questions during the Committee’s review of its report.

The Committee monitors States’ compliance with the CRC through reports that they are required to submit within two years after ratifying the CRC, and every five years thereafter. The Committee also receives information on a country’s human rights situation from other sources including non-governmental organizations (NGOs), academic institutions and the media.

Upon review of the reports and accompanying information, the Committee publishes its concerns and recommendations, referred to as “concluding observations.” These observations generally evaluate the report, note positive developments and issues of concern and typically offer suggestions and recommendations to the States Party to improve compliance with the CRC.

The Committee may also initiate further studies on matters of children’s rights with international relevance. It may facilitate “technical assistance” for those nations requesting advice in compliance with the CRC and report to the UN General Assembly regarding the Committee’s activities.

The recommendations remain just that. The CRC provides no enforcement authority to the Committee or any international body to enforce the Committee's recommendations.